Yaoundé - 19/04/2019

Journal africain d'informations sanitaires, environnementales et de développement durable

Alerte : Le tabac fait sa rentrée scolaire

L’Enquête mondiale sur le tabagisme chez les jeunes (Gyts) réalisée en mars 2008 relevait que 15,2% des élèves âgés de 13 à 15 ans avaient déjà fumé une cigarette.

Les élèves disent non au tabac en milieu scolaire.

Le tabagisme demeure un problème de santé publique majeur dans les pays du Sud où sa prévalence est en constante augmentation. La mutation comportementale observée au cours de l’adolescence rend cette population vulnérable et fait d’elle une cible importante pour de l’industrie du tabac.  Les facteurs indépendamment associés au tabagisme étaient : la consommation d’autres substances psychoaffectives (alcool, drogue), le sexe masculin, le redoublement des classes, l’argent de poche et le fait d’avoir eu à acheter la cigarette pour quelqu’un.

Pour le ministre de la Santé, André Mama Fouda : « L’épidémie de tabagisme a un impact sur la santé publique des pays en développement, dont le Cameroun. L’usage du tabac est une cause majeure de décès prématuré et d’incapacité évitables, qui touche principalement la population économiquement productive dans les zones urbaines et rurales. Au Cameroun, à moins que des politiques fortes soient mises en place pour dissuader les jeunes à s’initier à la consommation du tabac, et en encourageant les utilisateurs à cesser de consommer, la consommation de tabac pourrait être l’un des plus importants facteurs de risques de mortalité et d’invalidité ».

L’Enquête mondiale sur le tabagisme chez les jeunes (Gyts) réalisée en mars 2008 dans sa région centrale avec l’appui de l’Organisation mondiale de la Santé (Oms) et du cdc Atlanta, relevait que 15,2% des élèves âgés de 13 à 15 ans avaient déjà fumé une cigarette, dont 9,2% des filles. 31,2% des jeunes de cette tranche d’âge avaient expérimenté le tabac avant l’âge de 10 ans, et 10% de ceux qui n’avaient jamais essayé de fumer étaient susceptibles de le faire dans les 12 mois suivant l’Enquête. Environ 23% étaient exposés à la fumée du tabac dans leur domicile. Par ailleurs l’Enquête globale sur le personnel enseignant (Gsps) réalisée en 2008 dans les écoles de la région centrale du Cameroun relevait que 27% des enseignants sont des usagers actuels de tabac et que 19% sont des fumeurs de cigarettes. Environ 5% des enseignants fument dans l’enceinte des établissements scolaires.

«Il y aura effectivement un désinvestissement sur le plan scolaire», prévient Dr Laure Menguene, psychiatre, par ailleurs sous-directeur de la santé mentale au ministère de la Santé publique (Minsanté). A ce propos, Arthur, 19 ans, élève au Lycée Leclerc de Yaoundé, se souvient de son camarade de classe Enama, exclu l’année dernière pour consommation de cigarette. Nous sommes à la sortie des classes et Arthur fait un flash-back à la fois douloureux et amusant en parlant de cet ami. «Il arrivait en classe déjà pinté, avait un comportement bizarre et comptait parmi les plus turbulents», se souvient le jeune homme en fronçant les sourcils.

Eddy-Yan MBARGA

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